This book introduces the classical and modern image reconstruction technologies. It covers topics in two-dimensional (2D) parallel-beam and fan-beam imaging, three-dimensional (3D) parallel ray, parallel plane, and cone-beam imaging. Both analytical and iterative methods are presented. The applications in X-ray CT, SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography), PET (positron emission tomography), and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) are discussed. Contemporary research results in exact region-of-interest (ROI) reconstruction with truncated projections, Katsevich´s cone-beam filtered backprojection algorithm, and reconstruction with highly under-sampled data are included. The last chapter of the book is devoted to the techniques of using a fast analytical algorithm to reconstruct an image that is equivalent to an iterative reconstruction. These techniques are the author´s most recent research results. This book is intended for students, engineers, and researchers who are interested in medical image reconstruction. Written in a non-mathematical way, this book provides an easy access to modern mathematical methods in medical imaging. Table of Content:Chapter 1 Basic Principles of Tomography1.1 Tomography1.2 Projection1.3 Image Reconstruction1.4 Backprojection1.5 Mathematical ExpressionsProblemsReferencesChapter 2 Parallel-Beam Image Reconstruction2.1 Fourier Transform2.2 Central Slice Theorem2.3 Reconstruction Algorithms2.4 A Computer Simulation2.5 ROI Reconstruction with Truncated Projections2.6 Mathematical Expressions (The Fourier Transform and Convolution , The Hilbert Transform and the Finite Hilbert Transform , Proof of the Central Slice Theorem, Derivation of the Filtered Backprojection Algorithm , Expression of the Convolution Backprojection Algorithm, Expression of the Radon Inversion Formula ,Derivation of the Backprojection-then-Filtering AlgorithmProblemsReferencesChapter 3 Fan-Beam Image Reconstruction3.1 Fan-Beam Geometry and Point Spread Function3.2 Parallel-Beam to Fan-Beam Algorithm Conversion3.3 Short Scan3.4 Mathematical Expressions (Derivation of a Filtered Backprojection Fan-Beam Algorithm, A Fan-Beam Algorithm Using the Derivative and the Hilbert Transform)ProblemsReferencesChapter 4 Transmission and Emission Tomography4.1 X-Ray Computed Tomography4.2 Positron Emission Tomography and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography4.3 Attenuation Correction for Emission Tomography4.4 Mathematical ExpressionsProblemsReferencesChapter 5 3D Image Reconstruction5.1 Parallel Line-Integral Data5.2 Parallel Plane-Integral Data5.3 Cone-Beam Data (Feldkamp´s Algorithm, Grangeat´s Algorithm, Katsevich´s Algorithm)5.4 Mathematical Expressions (Backprojection-then-Filtering for Parallel Line-Integral Data, Filtered Backprojection Algorithm for Parallel Line-Integral Data, 3D Radon Inversion Formula, 3D Backprojection-then-Filtering Algorithm for Radon Data, Feldkamp´s Algorithm, Tuy´s Relationship, Grangeat´s Relationship, Katsevich´s Algorithm)ProblemsReferencesChapter 6 Iterative Reconstruction6.1 Solving a System of Linear Equations6.2 Algebraic Reconstruction Technique6.3 Gradient Descent Algorithms6.4 Maximum-Likelihood Expectation-Maximization Algorithms6.5 Ordered-Subset Expectation-Maximization Algorithm6.6 Noise Handling (Analytical Methods, Iterative Methods, Iterative Methods)6.7 Noise Modeling as a Likelihood Function6.8 Including Prior Knowledge6.9 Mathematical Expressions (ART, Conjugate Gradient Algorithm, ML-EM, OS-EM, Green´s One-Step Late Algorithm, Matched and Unmatched Projector/Backprojector Pairs )6.10 Reconstruction Using Highly Undersampled Data with l0 MinimizationProblemsReferencesChapter 7 MRI Reconstruction7.1 The ´M´7.2 The ´R´7.3 The ´I´; (To Obtain z-Information, x-Information, y-Information)7.4 Mathematical ExpressionsProblemsReferencesIndexing
Arsène Wenger is leaving Arsenal at the end of the 2018 season. The Wenger Revolution is a celebration of his first twenty years with the club. In September 1996 a Frenchman, so little known in English football that fans asked ´´Arsène Who?´´, walked into Arsenal. In the subsequent twenty years as manager he transformed the club. A total renovation of the training, stadium, style, economics of the team and the attraction of a global audience has taken place under Wenger´s instruction. This fascinating era is chronicled from the very beginning with distinctive photographs taken from inside the inner sanctum of the club by official Arsenal photographer Stuart MacFarlane, who has had privileged access for many years. Award winning journalist Amy Lawrence introduces each section to set the scene. This captivating collection of images is captioned with personal anecdotes from Arsène Wenger himself as he reminisces about the significant moments and people that have defined his time at the club over the last 20 years.
Lawrence A. Kreiser, Jr.?s Marketing the Blue and Gray analyzes newspaper advertising during the American Civil War. Newspapers circulated widely between 1861 and 1865, and merchants took full advantage of this readership. They marketed everything from war bonds to biographies of military and political leaders; from patent medicines that promised to cure almost any battlefield wound to ?secession cloaks? and ?Fort Sumter? cockades. Union and Confederate advertisers pitched shopping as its own form of patriotism, one of the more enduring legacies of the nation?s largest and bloodiest war. However, unlike important-sounding headlines and editorials, advertisements have received only passing notice from historians. As the first full-length analysis of Union and Confederate newspaper advertising, Kreiser?s study sheds light on this often overlooked aspect of Civil War media. Kreiser argues that the marketing strategies of the time show how commercialization and patriotism became increasingly intertwined as Union and Confederate war aims evolved. Yankees and Rebels believed that buying decisions were an important expression of their civic pride, from ?Union forever? groceries to ?States Rights? sewing machines. He suggests that the notices helped to expand American democracy by allowing their diverse readership to participate in almost every aspect of the Civil War. As potential customers, free blacks and white women perused announcements for war-themed biographies, images, and other material wares that helped to define the meaning of the fighting. Advertisements also helped readers to become more savvy consumers and, ultimately, citizens, by offering them choices. White men and, in the Union after 1863, black men might volunteer for military service after reading a recruitment notice; or they might instead respond to the kind of notice for ?draft insurance? that flooded newspapers after the Union and Confederate governments resorted to conscription to help fill the ranks. Marketing the Blue and Gray demonstrates how, through their sometimes-messy choices, advertising pages offered readers the opportunity to participate?or not?in the war effort.
With more than 5,000 images, a unique page layout, and comprehensive illustrations of the entire spectrum of vitreous, retina, and macula disorders, The Retinal Atlas, 2nd Edition , is an indispensable reference for retina specialists and comprehensive ophthalmologists as well as residents and fellows in training. For this edition, an expanded author team made up of Drs. K. Bailey Freund, David Sarraf, William F. Mieler, and Lawrence A. Yannuzzi, each an expert in retinal research and imaging, provide definitive up-to-date perspectives in this rapidly advancing field. This award-winning title has been thoroughly updated with new images with multimodal illustrations, new coverage and insight into key topics, and new disorders and classifications , while retaining the innovative page layout that has made it the most useful and most complete atlas of its kind.
Popular for its easy-to-use format, Felson s Principles of Chest Roentgenology remains the must-have primer of chest radiology. With the inclusion of the latest imaging approaches and terminology, its unique programmed learning approach presented in a highly interactive style demystifies reading and interpreting radiologic images. High-quality images and diagrams are accompanied by multiple-choice review questions to reinforce key concepts. Additional online images plus self-assessment tests help you sharpen your skills and build confidence! ´´A must for anyone who fancies him/herself as a competent general radiologist.´´ Reviewed by : John Reid, Borders General Hospital on behalf of RAD Magazine, December 2015
THIEME Atlas of Anatomy: General Anatomy and Musculoskeletal System, Second Edition, Latin Nomenclature is an ideal educational tool for anyone studying musculoskeletal anatomy. Each region is presented in a manner that builds understanding: starting with bones, joints, and muscles, then vasculature and nerves, and concluding with topographic illustrations. This atlas begins with a concise overview of general anatomy and moves on to the detailed anatomy of the trunk wall, upper limb, and lower limb.Key Features:Labels and anatomic terminology are in Latin nomenclature.Expanded coverage of tissue structure and development, functional testing, diagnostic imaging, and diseases of the musculoskeletal systemExquisite full-color illustrations with clear, thorough labeling and descriptive captionsEach two-page spread is a self-contained guide to a topicHundreds of clinical applications integrated into the anatomic descriptions, emphasizing the vital link between anatomic structure and functionSummary tables that are ideal for rapid reviewAccess to WinkingSkull.com PLUS, with over 500 images from the book for labels-on and labels-off review and timed self-testsThe THIEME Atlas of Anatomy series also features Neck and Internal Organs and Head and Neuroanatomy. Each atlas is available in Latin Nomenclature hardbound editions or in softcover with English/International Nomenclature.
In the past, literary critics have certainly examined the link between protagonists and external images in works of literature - usually by viewing projections in the Freudian sense as manifestations of displaced desires; however, an encompassing theory of how these external representations of the self are positioned in narrative and what the projectional matrix can reveal about the way Subjectivity is presented and activated in works of literature has not yet been developed. This book will attempt to close this blind spot in literary theory by devising a framework with the help of which the manifestations of projected images in literary texts can be adequately portrayed. To this end, four modern novels (Brontë, Lawrence, McEwan, Rhys) that sport a rich tapestry of projectional foils will be analysed in an effort to document the potential of the ´Externalised Text of the Self´.
Nachdem der gerissene Betrüger Irving Rosenfeld ausgerechnet vom FBI-Agenten Jimmy Boyle auf frischer Tat ertappt wird, lässt er sich zähneknirschend auf einen Deal ein: fortan arbeitet er als verdeckter Ermittler für die Polizei, um so dem drohenden Knast zu entgehen. Gemeinsam hecken die beiden Männer nun einen ebenso tolldreisten wie trickreichen Plan aus, mithilfe dessen sie einem Ring hochprofessioneller Falschspieler in Atlantic City das Handwerk legen wollen. Die Theorie ist das eine, die Praxis jedoch oft etwas ganz anderes: Und so mündet der Undercover-Einsatz bald in einem heillosen Durcheinander, in das immer mehr Ganoven und korrupte Politiker hineingezogen werden. Ende der 70er im schillernden New York: Irving Rosenfeld (Christian Bale) besitzt mehrere Waschsalons, aber sein Geld verdient er mit dubiosen Geldgeschäften und Kunstfälschungen. Mit Hilfe seiner Geschäftspartnerin und verführerischen Geliebten Sydney Prosser (Amy Adams) hat er es zu einem kleinen Vermögen gebracht. Als der überambitionierte FBI-Agent Richie DiMaso (Bradley Cooper) den beiden brillanten Trickbetrügern auf die Schliche kommt, lässt sich das Gaunerpaar auf einen ungewöhnlichen Deal ein: DiMaso setzt die beiden als Lockvögel auf die Politikprominenz New Jerseys an. Vor allem auf den Bürgermeister von Camden, Carmine Polito (Jeremy Renner), hat er es abgesehen. Hinter dessen Saubermann-Image vermutet er Korruption und Mafiaverbindungen. Am Ende könnte es allerdings Irvings unberechenbare und eifersüchtige Ehefrau Rosalyn (Jennifer Lawrence) sein, die die gesamte Operation zum Platzen bringt ...
First published as Moby-Dick; or, The Whale in 1851, Herman Melville’s epic tale about obsession and greed shows no signs of losing popularity in the digital age. The book begins as a straightforward narrative in realistic prose. After the first fifteen chapters, it becomes a complex combination of cetology, philosophy, and adventure narrative written in rhapsodic metaphorical style. A profound symbolic study of good and evil, Moby Dick is widely regarded as one of the great American novels. This new digital edition of Moby Dick includes a newly corrected text and an image gallery showcasing original illustrations from early editions of the novel, as well as several portraits of author Melville. ´´One of the strangest and most wonderful books in the world.´´ - D. H. Lawrence.