Image Reconstruction:Applications in Medical Sciences De Gruyter Textbook Gengsheng Lawrence Zeng
Image Reconstruction:Applications in Medical Sciences De Gruyter Textbook. 1. Auflage Gengsheng Lawrence Zeng
This book introduces the classical and modern image reconstruction technologies. It covers topics in two-dimensional (2D) parallel-beam and fan-beam imaging, three-dimensional (3D) parallel ray, parallel plane, and cone-beam imaging. Both analytical and iterative methods are presented. The applications in X-ray CT, SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography), PET (positron emission tomography), and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) are discussed. Contemporary research results in exact region-of-interest (ROI) reconstruction with truncated projections, Katsevich´s cone-beam filtered backprojection algorithm, and reconstruction with highly under-sampled data are included. The last chapter of the book is devoted to the techniques of using a fast analytical algorithm to reconstruct an image that is equivalent to an iterative reconstruction. These techniques are the author´s most recent research results. This book is intended for students, engineers, and researchers who are interested in medical image reconstruction. Written in a non-mathematical way, this book provides an easy access to modern mathematical methods in medical imaging. Table of Content:Chapter 1 Basic Principles of Tomography1.1 Tomography1.2 Projection1.3 Image Reconstruction1.4 Backprojection1.5 Mathematical ExpressionsProblemsReferencesChapter 2 Parallel-Beam Image Reconstruction2.1 Fourier Transform2.2 Central Slice Theorem2.3 Reconstruction Algorithms2.4 A Computer Simulation2.5 ROI Reconstruction with Truncated Projections2.6 Mathematical Expressions (The Fourier Transform and Convolution , The Hilbert Transform and the Finite Hilbert Transform , Proof of the Central Slice Theorem, Derivation of the Filtered Backprojection Algorithm , Expression of the Convolution Backprojection Algorithm, Expression of the Radon Inversion Formula ,Derivation of the Backprojection-then-Filtering AlgorithmProblemsReferencesChapter 3 Fan-Beam Image Reconstruction3.1 Fan-Beam Geometry and Point Spread Function3.2 Parallel-Beam to Fan-Beam Algorithm Conversion3.3 Short Scan3.4 Mathematical Expressions (Derivation of a Filtered Backprojection Fan-Beam Algorithm, A Fan-Beam Algorithm Using the Derivative and the Hilbert Transform)ProblemsReferencesChapter 4 Transmission and Emission Tomography4.1 X-Ray Computed Tomography4.2 Positron Emission Tomography and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography4.3 Attenuation Correction for Emission Tomography4.4 Mathematical ExpressionsProblemsReferencesChapter 5 3D Image Reconstruction5.1 Parallel Line-Integral Data5.2 Parallel Plane-Integral Data5.3 Cone-Beam Data (Feldkamp´s Algorithm, Grangeat´s Algorithm, Katsevich´s Algorithm)5.4 Mathematical Expressions (Backprojection-then-Filtering for Parallel Line-Integral Data, Filtered Backprojection Algorithm for Parallel Line-Integral Data, 3D Radon Inversion Formula, 3D Backprojection-then-Filtering Algorithm for Radon Data, Feldkamp´s Algorithm, Tuy´s Relationship, Grangeat´s Relationship, Katsevich´s Algorithm)ProblemsReferencesChapter 6 Iterative Reconstruction6.1 Solving a System of Linear Equations6.2 Algebraic Reconstruction Technique6.3 Gradient Descent Algorithms6.4 Maximum-Likelihood Expectation-Maximization Algorithms6.5 Ordered-Subset Expectation-Maximization Algorithm6.6 Noise Handling (Analytical Methods, Iterative Methods, Iterative Methods)6.7 Noise Modeling as a Likelihood Function6.8 Including Prior Knowledge6.9 Mathematical Expressions (ART, Conjugate Gradient Algorithm, ML-EM, OS-EM, Green´s One-Step Late Algorithm, Matched and Unmatched Projector/Backprojector Pairs )6.10 Reconstruction Using Highly Undersampled Data with l0 MinimizationProblemsReferencesChapter 7 MRI Reconstruction7.1 The ´M´7.2 The ´R´7.3 The ´I´; (To Obtain z-Information, x-Information, y-Information)7.4 Mathematical ExpressionsProblemsReferencesIndexing
Guts and Glory:The Making of the American Military Image in Film Lawrence H. Suid
He was recognized by many as a curious scholar and archaeologist, brilliant linguist, British soldier, extraordinary adventurer, and avid writer, though he called himself an ´´ordinary man´´. He was a gifted translator, a shrewd diplomat, a brilliant tactician, and an instinctive leader. T.E. Lawrence, more popularly known as Lawrence of Arabia, was a seminal figure in the shaping and reshaping of the politics of Arabia in the early 20th century, serving as an expert in Arab affairs in the British military and playing a key role in the Great Arab Revolt of 1916-1918. World War I, also known as the Great War of 1914-1918, was one of the deadliest conflicts in human history, leading to the deaths of millions of soldiers and civilians, and it was a war that produced too many casualties and too few heroes. However, after the war was over, the world was told of the blonde-haired, blue-eyed British officer named Thomas Edward Lawrence, and his experiences in Arabia during the fighting. Pictures of Lawrence in a flowing white robe of Arabia´s Bedouin tribes were distributed, and Lawrence´s autobiography, Seven Pillars of Wisdom, further catapulted his fame and sensationalized his public image. Lawrence´s story served to boost the spirits of many who were struggling to recover after the tragedy of the war. It is telling of just how remarkable the tale is that the world’s fascination with Lawrence of Arabia has endured today. Articles, books, films, and documentaries about Lawrence and his exploits are continuously released on an annual basis. Historian Phillip Knightley once commented, ´´Along with Winston Churchill, [T.E. Lawrence] remains perhaps the best-known Englishman in the world.´´ Decades since the end of the war, and with a completely changed Middle Eastern geopolitical landscape, Lawrence of Arabia and his legacy are still remembered and referenced as politically, militarily, and socially pertinent. However, Lawrence was by no 1. Language: English. Narrator: Ken Teutsch. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/072845/bk_acx0_072845_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Islam and the Rule of Justice:Image and Reality in Muslim Law and Culture Rosen Lawrence Rosen