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This book introduces the classical and modern image reconstruction technologies. It covers topics in two-dimensional (2D) parallel-beam and fan-beam imaging, three-dimensional (3D) parallel ray, parallel plane, and cone-beam imaging. Both analytical and iterative methods are presented. The applications in X-ray CT, SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography), PET (positron emission tomography), and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) are discussed. Contemporary research results in exact region-of-interest (ROI) reconstruction with truncated projections, Katsevich´s cone-beam filtered backprojection algorithm, and reconstruction with highly under-sampled data are included. The last chapter of the book is devoted to the techniques of using a fast analytical algorithm to reconstruct an image that is equivalent to an iterative reconstruction. These techniques are the author´s most recent research results. This book is intended for students, engineers, and researchers who are interested in medical image reconstruction. Written in a non-mathematical way, this book provides an easy access to modern mathematical methods in medical imaging. Table of Content:Chapter 1 Basic Principles of Tomography1.1 Tomography1.2 Projection1.3 Image Reconstruction1.4 Backprojection1.5 Mathematical ExpressionsProblemsReferencesChapter 2 Parallel-Beam Image Reconstruction2.1 Fourier Transform2.2 Central Slice Theorem2.3 Reconstruction Algorithms2.4 A Computer Simulation2.5 ROI Reconstruction with Truncated Projections2.6 Mathematical Expressions (The Fourier Transform and Convolution , The Hilbert Transform and the Finite Hilbert Transform , Proof of the Central Slice Theorem, Derivation of the Filtered Backprojection Algorithm , Expression of the Convolution Backprojection Algorithm, Expression of the Radon Inversion Formula ,Derivation of the Backprojection-then-Filtering AlgorithmProblemsReferencesChapter 3 Fan-Beam Image Reconstruction3.1 Fan-Beam Geometry and Point Spread Function3.2 Parallel-Beam to Fan-Beam Algorithm Conversion3.3 Short Scan3.4 Mathematical Expressions (Derivation of a Filtered Backprojection Fan-Beam Algorithm, A Fan-Beam Algorithm Using the Derivative and the Hilbert Transform)ProblemsReferencesChapter 4 Transmission and Emission Tomography4.1 X-Ray Computed Tomography4.2 Positron Emission Tomography and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography4.3 Attenuation Correction for Emission Tomography4.4 Mathematical ExpressionsProblemsReferencesChapter 5 3D Image Reconstruction5.1 Parallel Line-Integral Data5.2 Parallel Plane-Integral Data5.3 Cone-Beam Data (Feldkamp´s Algorithm, Grangeat´s Algorithm, Katsevich´s Algorithm)5.4 Mathematical Expressions (Backprojection-then-Filtering for Parallel Line-Integral Data, Filtered Backprojection Algorithm for Parallel Line-Integral Data, 3D Radon Inversion Formula, 3D Backprojection-then-Filtering Algorithm for Radon Data, Feldkamp´s Algorithm, Tuy´s Relationship, Grangeat´s Relationship, Katsevich´s Algorithm)ProblemsReferencesChapter 6 Iterative Reconstruction6.1 Solving a System of Linear Equations6.2 Algebraic Reconstruction Technique6.3 Gradient Descent Algorithms6.4 Maximum-Likelihood Expectation-Maximization Algorithms6.5 Ordered-Subset Expectation-Maximization Algorithm6.6 Noise Handling (Analytical Methods, Iterative Methods, Iterative Methods)6.7 Noise Modeling as a Likelihood Function6.8 Including Prior Knowledge6.9 Mathematical Expressions (ART, Conjugate Gradient Algorithm, ML-EM, OS-EM, Green´s One-Step Late Algorithm, Matched and Unmatched Projector/Backprojector Pairs )6.10 Reconstruction Using Highly Undersampled Data with l0 MinimizationProblemsReferencesChapter 7 MRI Reconstruction7.1 The ´M´7.2 The ´R´7.3 The ´I´; (To Obtain z-Information, x-Information, y-Information)7.4 Mathematical ExpressionsProblemsReferencesIndexing
Leading archaeologist Paul Bahn explores the caves, rocks, and objects decorated by our Ice Age ancestors, giving us a unique opportunity to marvel at some of the earliest evidence of artistic expression. Images of the Ice Age provides a visual feast and an absorbing synthesis of this crucial aspect of human history.
Kurzinfo: Epson Network Image Express - Scannerserver - 10Mb LAN, 100Mb LAN - 10Base-T, 100Base-TX - für Expression 10000XL, 1640XL, 1680, GT 15000, 2500, 2500 Plus, 30000 Gruppe Netzwerkadapter Hersteller Epson Hersteller Art. Nr. B12B808392BZ Modell Network Image Express EAN/UPC 8715946239019 Produktbeschreibung: Epson Network Image Express Scannerserver Gerätetyp Scannerserver Formfaktor Plug-in-Modul Verdrahtungstyp Ethernet 10Base-T, Ethernet 100Base-TX Data Link Protocol Ethernet, Fast Ethernet Datenübertragungsrate 100 Mbps Netzwerk/Transportprotokoll TCP/IP Systemanforderungen Apple MacOS 8.6, Apple MacOS 9.x, Apple MacOS X 10.2 oder später, Microsoft Windows 98/ME/NT/2000/XP Entwickelt für Expression 10000XL, 1640XL, 1680, GT 15000, 2500, 2500 Plus, 30000 Ausführliche Details Allgemein Gerätetyp Scannerserver Formfaktor Plug-in-Modul Netzwerk Anschlusstechnik Verkabelt Verdrahtungstyp Ethernet 10Base-T, Ethernet 100Base-TX Data Link Protocol Ethernet, Fast Ethernet Datenübertragungsrate
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Facial Expression Recognition System:Extracting Expressions from Facial Images Madhulika Bhatia